Project Members
Sereena Hamm & Katie Shanahan


Learning through video games teaches students to think systematically, persist through challenges and failure, take calculated risks and vary their performance based on feedback (Gee 2005). Video games also tell compelling interactive stories and use sophisticated storytelling techniques to communicate a wide range of emotions and experiences to the audience. Because students are familiar with video games and range from casual to frequent players outside the classroom, using video games to enhance content instruction can engage students in learning in new ways. Playing video games is not the only valuable experience for students. When students are able to design their own games, they gain the ability to apply abstract concepts to real world experiences and problems, a skill transferable across content areas and in future careers. Additionally, “Designing games builds Systems Thinking, 21st Century Skills, Creative Problem Solving, Art and Aesthetics, Writing and Storytelling, and creates a motivation for STEM learning” [sic] ( As students learn to use tools to build a video game that challenges their peers, they develop computational thinking and creativity as they create logical rules and goals while also designing aesthetically pleasing settings and stories for their quests.

This unit plan documents the initial planning for a pilot of a new 7th grade English unit at Terrapin Middle School. The unit, a culminating experience for the 7th grade Imagination and Storytelling, guides students through the process of designing their own video game using the tools provided at Gamestar Mechanic ( Gamestar Mechanic, an award-winning game design platform for children ages 7-14, teaches students to think and apply the problem solving and systematic thinking strategies of professional game designers by allowing them to play and edit games in “quest” levels that teach them about the essential game design principles of space, components, mechanics, rules, and goals. Once students have learned about game design by playing the quest, they are prepared to design their own games.

Perhaps this sounds like a daunting task, but no programming ability is needed for Gamestar Mechanic, so we think it serves as a tool to teach critical thinking that most teachers will be able to learn quickly and can use to guide students through the process of creating challenging, but fun games for their peers. The unit is divided into three phases to help students ensure that they are able to publish high-quality games with engaging stories. First, students prepare to design games by analyzing the stories of video games for literary techniques and storytelling strategies. Then, students play the quest levels of Gamestar Mechanic to learn how to build games. Finally, students plan and design their games. To ensure the quality of their final products, students play- test their games and receive peer feedback in order to revise their games before their final submissions.

This plan includes the needed documentation, materials, and notes for future TMS teachers or teachers in other communities to conduct this unit, including lesson plans, materials and worksheets, models of student work, and assessment tools.

Download the unit pack in .pdf format here:


The Literary Gaming project will be a culminating experience for the 7th grade Imagination and Storytelling unit. Students will be reviewing narrative elements and the basics of storytelling and applying these principles to game design. This will give the students an opportunity to present a story in a new and unique medium. Literary Gaming will address the following standards in the areas of English Language Arts (ELA) - Reading, Writing, Library Media and Technology:

Common Core - English Language Arts Standards - Reading- Grade 7
RL.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL.7.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
RL.7.3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

Common Core - English Language Arts Standards - Writing - Grade 7
W.7.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

W.7.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).

The Common Core ELA - Writing and Reading standards will be addressed through the review of the structures of storytelling in the first phase of the unit, where students will study video games as narratives. In these analytical lessons students will compare and contrast video games and print narratives. Additionally, students will explain how the elements of a video game interact, especially how visuals and interaction support the narrative. Students will be asked to use specific evidence from the video game narratives to draw conclusions and analyze the storytelling techniques used in each narrative. Students will be expected to write their own story and create it in the format of a game. Storyboards will aid students to plan their stories and final products will be assessed for narrative structure as well as the design elements of the game. Students will need to establish a point of view, a logical sequence for storytelling, transitions, details and a conclusion as they would when crafting a print narrative.
Standards for the 21st Century Learner
2. Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge.

  • 2.1.5 Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions and solve problems.
  • 2.1.6 Use the writing process, media and visual literacy, and technology skills to create products that express new understandings. (Skill)

4. Pursue personal and aesthetic growth.
  • 4.1.8 Use creative and artistic formats to express personal learning. (Skill)

This project will address three skills each within two American Association of School Libraries (AASL) Standards from “Standards for the 21st Century Learner.” Students will be utilizing new technology skills (including basic computer skills, tools of Gamestar Mechanic, and principles of game design) to create a story in a new creative and artistic medium. This technology gives students the freedom to be as creative as they apply their understanding of narrative structure and writing in a new way. Students will also be expected to collaborate with each other through this process in several ways. First, students will informally share their knowledge about Gamestar Mechanic and have the opportunity to informally mentor peers in need of assistance. Second, students will complete a small group game design challenge before completing their independent final assignment. Finally, students will collaborate by providing revision feedback for each other. The principles of the writing process (drafting, creating, revising, and publishing) will be observed in the unit as well, as students will create a storyboard for their games, make an initial draft, get feedback from their peers, and make needed and meaningful changes to their games to improve playability. Students’ final projects will express their new understanding of game design principles and demonstrate flexibility and transference of their narrative writing skills.

Maryland Technology Literacy Standards for Students - Grade 7
Standard 3: Learning - Select and use technology tools to enhance learning

  • a)Use technology tools, including software and hardware, to learn new content or reinforce skills
  • b)Defend the selection of a specific technology tool to complete a learning task

Students will be reinforcing their writing skills through the use of technology, in this case the web application Gamestar Mechanic. Students will assess their classmates work as well as assert whether or not they believe this was the appropriate tool or format for their stories in the review process for this unit.

Setting and Context

About Terrapins Middle School (TMS)Terrapins Middle School, opened in 1968 and is located in a large suburban area located next to a major metropolitan area. The school serves grades 6-8 and has a population of approximately 725 students.
TMS LibraryThe socioeconomic status of the school is predominately high with only 10% in the Free and Reduced Meal (FARMS) program. The student population and composition have recently increased and diversified due to redistricting, although this community it sill predominately White (52%) with an increase in the Hispanic population (25%) and in ESOL students (5% and growing). There is only 2% of the population who have special needs. Special needs and ESOL students are clustered at Terrapin Middle School utilizing the plug-in instructional model. The clusters are therefore used to maximize the use of specialists.

The library has one library media specialist (LMS) and one media assistant allowing the LMS time for collaboration, lesson planning and teaching. The school has flexible scheduling and the media assistant can provide administrative assistance to students (i.e. checking out books) in the absence of the LMS.The library is open 30 minutes before the first bell and closes 60 minutes after the last bell except on Monday’s when it is staffed by a volunteer until 5:00pm and open to the entire school community including parents. Library computers are also available for student use during study hall periods on a sign up basis. The availability of alternative computer lab hours can help alleviate access issues or parent concerns about time on devices shared by siblings or the entire household.
The Unit The unit will be co-taught by the school librarian and one 7th grade English teacher. The school librarian proposed this unit to a teacher that is open to collaboration and that she has worked with in the past, since this is the first time the school librarian will be using Gamestar Mechanic. Collaborating with a teacher for a 7th grade English class that she has worked with in the past will enable the teacher and librarian to focus on the technology and content delivery rather than on establishing rapport and collaboration details. Ultimately, the librarian hopes to propose this unit to other 7th grade teachers. The biggest challenge of this scenario is ensuring the teacher and librarian are able to share teaching responsibilities in a logical, meaningful and equitable way, and that the librarian can schedule the time necessary in the computer lab. Finding time to plan together is also a challenge. The library is on a flexible schedule, so the librarian should have no issues setting up time to plan or co-teach during the lessons.

The teacher and librarian have worked together before and are technically savvy so online resources like the school’s Google Docs can be used for further collaborative planning remotely if necessary. When the project is done with other teachers this may be the biggest challenge along with ensuring all teachers are trained on the technology as needed. Also, if implemented with the larger 7th grade classes the librarian would have to also work with the ESOL teachers and their standards given the uptick in the ESOL population of the school.

The actual lessons will run during the English Language Arts class which meet daily for 45 minutes. The unit will run continuously for approximately three weeks. The unit will require premium access to Gamestar Mechanic to ensure the greatest creative potential for students, since the premium site offers extended quests and a larger set of game building blocks (sprites) for use by students. The teacher and librarian have chosen to finance the premium license and gain support for the unit by creating it as a project on, a site which asks users to make a small donation toward supplies and special projects for classrooms.

Technology at TMS Each classroom in our school a minimum of two computers (one for the teacher which teachers may choose to allow students to use, and one dedicated student computer). Each classroom is also equipped with a Smartboard. The school’s network connection is strong, so Internet runs well. The school has a traveling laptop cart of 30 laptops and the library media center has a computer lab of 30 computers. As previously mentioned, the lab has been reserved for all needed classes in the library.

However, though our school does have adequate machines and bandwidth to conduct the unit, no network is perfect, and we know that technology will fail sometimes. In order to plan for technical difficulties, teachers have planned tentative back up lessons. Early on in the unit, we will use time when computer is down to review principles of game design and literary terms. During the design phase of the project, we will use graph paper and pencil to plan games so that design is set whenever students can log in next. If we experience difficulty near the end of the project, we will use periods to do a class check-in about project status and begin the reflection process about the unit.

Teacher and Student Tech Skills
Just as critical as understanding the technology our school provides is understanding the skill level of the teacher and student users of the technology. This is key to planning and scaffolding as needed. The teachers currently involved in the unit, a school librarian and an English teacher, are both tech savvy and willing to put in a bit of time to learn the program by playing the quest levels before students do. However, after the initial design of the unit, the teachers would like to propose the unit to other 7th grade English classes, so there is a concern in ensuring that the program is simple to learn for both teachers and students. Overall the web application is intuitive, however, it does involve taking time to play all quest levels, many of which will involve multiple attempts. Teachers may find the initial amount of prep time challenging, but we believe they will be rewarded by increased student engagement.

In terms of evaluating student tech skill at TMS, teachers will conduct a small survey (assigned to students for homework a few days before the unit begins) of students to understand more about how students have used video games in the past and their confidence and past performance in tech- related activities. We will ask about how students use technology at home and what technology (desktop/laptop/ tablet, etc) they have available because this unit will require students to have an Internet connection and time to use a computer or device that can run Flash on a regular basis. A plan to aid students who do not have this regular access is detailed below. Connectivity is not usually a concern for our students, but some students have difficulty scheduling regular computer time due to extracurricular activities or sharing homework computers with siblings.

Students in the pilot class are at a variety of skill levels. Some students play computer or console games on a regular basis and are interested in game design. One concern we may face with this group of students is that they will move quickly through the quest levels of the game and understand design principles quickly, which could lead to disengagement with the parameters of the assignment. We hope to challenge this group of students by encouraging them to produce more complex (high difficulty level, additional levels) games and giving them responsibilities to help other students or utilize the community features of the game more frequently.

Another group of students (20, the majority of the class) are used to using computers for personal and school use and occasionally play video games both in school and casually. These students will have success in the unit and we expect them to progress at the pace of the unit. The only concern raised by many of these students was slow keyboarding speed. Because the unit does not often require typing long texts, we expect this challenge to have minimal impact. In fact, students with slow typing speed may be able to demonstrate their skills with storytelling concepts more effectively in a primarily non-verbally setting. We do have a few students (2-3) who indicated low-levels of computer use or skill and who do not play video games unless they are used for educational purposes within school. We hope to pair these students with more advanced students for help and will encourage them to receive more one-on-one time from teachers during study hall.

Addressing Concerns from Administrators and Parents
Because classroom accounts for Gamestar Mechanic block social media features by default, students are able to use this account without violating the school’s IT/ Acceptable Use policy. As school policy states, we have shared our plans for this new unit with our department chair and administration in preparation for the unit, diminishing their concerns. One concern raised about the unit from the English department chair is the use of copyrighted clips from video games for our video game analysis lessons. We clarified that our video game clips from popular games do not violate copyright because they meet the guidelines for Fair Use (only using a small percentage of the work for non-profit educational purposes in a way that would not diminish sales of the product commercially). Since YouTube is blocked at the school, we will use a technology like KeepVid to download videos in advance.

In early discussions of the unit with families at the school, our greatest policy concerns have been raised by parents of our students. One concern raised by parents was the amount of screen time that the unit would require. We directed this parent to the Gamestar Mechanic parent section, which provides information on helping set appropriate play time limits for kids ( Completing required assignments for this unit would align with Gamestar guidelines, though parents will be responsible for helping students set play limits for any time above what the unit requires.

Students would be required to be on the computer for school on a daily basis. Parents were also concerned about the amount of time the unit would take outside of school. Several parents raised concerns about intensive sports or music practice schedules that would make students unable to complete any homework that requires a computer until late in the evening (after 9:30pm in most cases). We offered to help all students with scheduling concerns find available computer workstations to complete their out-of-class work during study hall. We also mentioned to parents that the library is staffed 60 minutes after the end of the school day each day and until 5pm one day per week to allow students to use services (including the computer lab) for extended time. Students who are absent for any part of the unit will also complete any missed work during study hall time or extended lab time if they are unable to do so at home. One parent still seemed offended that we would not waive the homework requirement, but we promised to continue to work with the family as the unit progressed in order to help the student complete out-of-class work in spite of his/her schedule constraints.

Another parent raised the concern about video games being used as education in the classroom. The parent indicated that he did not view video games as educational and was not sure this was the direction the class should take. Because we had thoroughly prepared the standards the unit would teach, we were able to explain the educational purpose of the unit to the parent. We also pointed to additional research on gaming in education that the parent might explore if he had any additional concerns.

Privacy is an obvious concern this unit raised. To keep parents informed about their children’s privacy, we sent out a permission form explaining the unit and summarizing the privacy policy, with a copy of the actual policy attached. Since students under 13 are not allowed to provide email addresses to the site, that will not be a concern for most of our students. Additionally, school accounts do not require students to give an email address. As explained above, students are also not able to use social media features on school accounts unless the school activates them (we have chosen not to because we believe we can encourage students to give feedback and community support to each other). We will also approve student user names so that they will be appropriate and not contain personal information. Teachers and LMS will need to keep a copy of student passwords in case of forgotten or lost, and students should share passwords with parents. Students will be unable to share passwords with each other. Both students and parents were required to sign the permission slip.We explained the permission slip in class because we felt it was an important part of teaching students to understand privacy online (something we have reinforced throughout the school year). Because we do not feel that all the objectives for this unit (especially those involving 21st century skills) can be met in one low-tech unit alternative, we have chosen to not let parents opt out of this unit.

Materials and Technology

Phase 1

Phase 1 will be the introduction to the content of the unit as well as the overview of the objectives and expectations. The students will be given the Assignment sheet and Rubric which will outline what is expected at the culmination of the unit.

Each student will be given a Permission slip and a Privacy statement that will explain the unit to the parents as well as the privacy guidelines that the teacher and librarian will ensure during the implementation of this unit. All Permission slips must be signed and returned before the beginning of Phase 2.

Students will also be given the Tech Survey on the first day of Phase 1 to complete. This will help the teacher and librarian design the groups for the game design lesson, Lesson Plan #3 (see below) to ensure that students with lower levels of exposure to technology are paired with high users during this assignment. This will also help the teacher and librarian scaffold the lessons for the students in the classroom if necessary.

The Smartboard will be utilized in Lesson Plan #1 (see below) to show the video game clips to students, so they can analyze the clips for narrative elements. The teacher will provide a graphic organizer to students so that they can write down their analysis.

Phase 2

Phase 2 will be the introduction and exploration of Gamestar Mechanic. The librarian will need to reserve the computer lab because all students will need access to their own computer with Internet access because Gamestar Mechanic is a web application. The librarian will obtain a Premium Classroom license to Gamestar Mechanic. There is some cost associated with the Premium Classroom license, however it has several more features in this version which are beneficial to the teachers and students for this unit. For example, there are more sprites (components) that students can work with within this version of Gamestar Mechanic.This is why the teacher and librarian looked into other sources of funding for this license.

As stated in the Permission slip and Privacy statement distributed to the parents, students’ login credentials will be created by the teacher and librarian to ensure no personal information is shared. The librarian will create a label for each student with their name and credentials. The librarian and teacher will each have a master document with all of the students’ credentials in case a student loses their label with said information or forget it one day.

The Element Cards are a resource utilized in the Gamestar Mechanic Learning Guide. They will be implemented in Lesson Plan #2 when students are learning the concepts and terms of game design. The Element Cards will be the second part of that lesson after playing the first two episodes of the Gamestar quest. Students will be matching the images on the cards with the terms and the first student to do this will win a prize gifted by the librarian. The Element Card Answer Key will be to ensure the students have the right answers. This game will reinforce the elements of game design the students will have learned during the first half of the lesson while exploring Gamestar.

The Challenge Cards will be used for the group project at the end of this phase. Each student will be put into a group assigned by the teacher and librarian based on their answers to the Tech Survey in the first phase. Each group will be tasked with creating a game based on the Challenge Card that the librarian gives them. This will be the class’ first game design with an objective in mind, so they will be working collaboratively. When the games are complete, each group will be assigned to review another group’s game based on how successfully the game completes the challenge.

Phase 3

Phase 3 will be the actual game design completed individually, and this will be the point that the students in the class will begin working on their final assignment.

The librarian will once again have to ensure that the computer lab is booked for all of the necessary class times, because students will need access to the web application in order to design their actual game within Gamestar. As described in Phase 2, the Premium Classroom license is necessary for this project. Students should all have their credentials from the previous phase, however if they have lost or forgotten them the teacher and librarian both have master copies and can distribute as necessary. Students will once again be given the Assignment sheet and Rubric which covers the objectives the students must accomplish in order to create a successful game for the culmination of this unit. The Rubric covers the elements that must be accounted for while creating their final game.

The teacher compiled a list of successful sample projects from Gamestar at the beginning of this project. She will show a few of these games in class as well as present students with a list of links along with the assignment that can help students if they get stuck creatively. These will be their models for the final assignment.

The Gamestar Storyboard will be given at the beginning of Phase 3, and this is the document that the students will utilize to map out their narratives for their games.

The Student Brainstorm Handout will be the culmination of Lesson Plan #3. The teacher and or librarian will have created this handout based on the students ideas of how to improve their group games. This is meant to help students create even better games during this design process.

The Playtester Feedback Form will be what students use at the end of this phase to review two other students’ games. The students will use the information gathered from this worksheet to improve their own game before turning it into the teacher and librarian for grading.

Lastly, the Evaluation Survey will be given to students after the final assignment is turned in. The results of this survey will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of this pilot unit.

Implementation and Assignments

This unit will take place over approximately three weeks and will be conducted in three phases. To complete the unit by the assignment due date, June 11, 2012, we will plan to begin the unit on May 21, 2012. Phase one of the assignment will take place in the English classroom, with the librarian and teacher in the classroom. The librarian and teacher will participate in instruction on both days, but will take turns leading the class in thier activities.

Phase 1: (3 days)

  • Promote Gamestar and go over assignment
  • Literary analysis day 1 (lesson plan 1)
  • Literary analysis day 2

Phase one of the project will introduce students to the unit and will create a foundation for students to explore video games as literature. On the first day, students will receive a demo of Gamestar, and go over the assignment sheet for the unit. For homework, students will receive the Tech Use Survey and Privacy statement for review at home. On this day, the librarian will promote Gamestar and go over the privacy statement and the English teacher will take the lead on going over the assignment with students. Over the next two days, students will analyze video games in a large group, small groups and independently (See lesson plan #1 for one day’s work on this topic). The English teacher will take the lead on this because she has worked with the class on analysis with these concepts earlier in the year. Both teachers will circulate during group and independent work.

Phase 2: Introduction and Exploration of Gamestar (3 days, with additional day possible as needed)

  • Playing five quest levels (lesson plan 2)
  • Designing first game based on quest 5 and/or challenge cards in groups (lesson plan 3)
  • Elements of game design
  • Key game design vocabulary

Phase 2 of the project will introduce Gamestar Mechanic to the students and begin their exploration of the web application/game design. Students will learn the elements of game design through playing. They will be tasked with completing the five quests of Gamestar. The final level being their first opportunity to design a game. Students will be expected to familiarize themselves with game design vocabulary as addressed in the Element Card game (see lesson plan #2). Students will also be expected to collaboratively work with their classmates on a group assignment and brainstorm ideas on how to improve their first attempts at creating a game (see lesson plan #3). The teacher and librarian will circulate during the game playing to help students if necessary.

Phase 3: Game design (5 days, with 6th day as needed)

  • Storyboard final game
  • Design game
  • Playtest peer games
  • Revise game based on feedback
  • Submit game

Phase 3 of the project will be the work completed independently and when students will be completing their final assignment. Students will be expected to storyboard a narrative and create a game based on this narrative. Gamestar Mechanic has introductory and conclusive cartoons that the students can utilize for their narratives. They will also have sample games that utilize narratives as well as their analysis from Phase 1 of the project to assist in the creative storyboarding process. Students will also be expected to peer review two other classmate’s projects and revise their own projects based on the feedback they receive. The librarian and teacher will circulate to assist students in their game design. The completion of this phase will see the submission of their games and the evaluation of the new technology.

Final Assignment and Assessment Students will be assessed on the final project. A successful final project will have a compelling narrative and be a challenging, but fun game without glitches, in addition to meeting baseline requirements such as including three levels, providing feedback to three peers, and making meaningful revisions during the iteration process. On the final assessment, students will receive 6-10 points in 10 categories that are linked to our standards: storyline, mechanics, setting and space, game description, pacing, mood, characterization, feedback, revision (iteration). An A-level project will demonstrate sophistication and detail in storytelling and game design, taking a unique approach to standards, and going above minimum requirements in all categories.

Review process for unitSince this is a pilot project, the teacher and librarian will do an extensive review process before deciding whether or not they want to implement this unit again as well as whether they would recommend this project to the other 7th grade English Language Arts teachers. This will also be the point where the teacher and librarian will add any additional notes or ideas they deem necessary to the unit pack if choosing to do this unit again.

The teacher and the librarian will base the project review on several factors, the first being the responses from the Evaluation survey that was distributed at the end of the project. The teacher and librarian will look to see if the students liked using Gamestar and whether or not the students felt that they were able to successfully complete the assignment using the application. The survey also asks students how difficult they found learning and using Gamestar as well as how difficult they found the quests which were the majority of the assignments necessary to learn the system.

The teacher and the librarian will also have a discussion about student learning and engagement based on their own observations. They will have co-taught the majority of the lessons together but will touch base about their overall impressions and further ideas for lessons. They will need to discuss any gaps in learning that they witnessed and if extra lessons are necessary. If additional lessons are needed, then the issue of timing will need to be revisted. Conversely, the teacher and librarian can discuss if there was too much time dedicated to this project and in the future it could be done with less class periods. A large part of the evaluation of this project will be on the quality of the final assignments and whether students were able to meet the objectives and standards throughout the unit.

Sample Lesson Plans
Lesson Plan 1: Textual Analysis of Video Games as Literature
This lesson reviews storytelling techniques with students and asks them to apply previous understanding of mood, character, setting, conflict, resolution, cause-effect, point of view, pacing, and transitions to video game narratives.

Video Game Clips

Lesson Plan 2: Gamestar Mechanic Lesson - Basic Terms and Concepts
This lesson introduces terms and concepts of game design. Students will learn the names and concepts behind the basic elements of game design through playing Gamestar Mechanic episodes.

Lesson Plan 3: Gamestar Mechanic Lesson - Design
This lesson reviews elements of game design and asks students to apply their previous knowledge to designing a game in a group during class.

Sample Projects

Gamestar Users:
Wuthering Heights, by Mr. Wood:
Winter Olympics, by mustelidae
The Secret of Ruby Manor, by plant10,000
Arika’s adventure, part 1, by mustelidae:

Teacher Model:
The Time Machine by lbsc642sh:


AASL. (2009). Standards for the 21st Century Learner. Retrieved from

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2011). The Standards. Retrieved from

E-Line Media & Institute of Play. (2010). Gamestar Mechanic. Retrieved from

Gee, J. P. (2005). Good video games and good learning. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 85(2), 33-37.

Hott, K. (2011). Getting Started Lessons - Lesson 1: Terms and Concepts. Retrieved from

Hott, K. (2011). Getting Started Lessons - Lesson 4: Design. Retrieved from

Maryland Technology Literacy Consortium. (2009). Maryland Technology Literacy Standards for Students. Retrieved from

MCPS. (2009). English 7.4. Unit Imagination. Retrieved from,%20Unit%204.pdf